Walter Edgar

South Carolina From A to Z
SC Public Radio

"L" is for Lynch, Kenneth Merrill, Sr. (1887-1974). Physician, educator. A native of Texas, Lynch moved to South Carolina in 1913 and became the first professor of pathology at the Medical College of South Carolina and the state’s first full-time pathologist. He is credited with discovering the first treatment for Granuloma inguinale, a venereal disease. In 1943 he became dean of the Medical College, a title the board of trustees changed to president in 1949.

"L" is for Lyman

May 10, 2018
South Carolina From A to Z
SC Public Radio

"L" is for Lyman (Spartanburg County; 2010 population 3,261). Lyman’s early history stemmed from the economic activity of the Groce family. The area was known as Groce or Groce’s Stop until the arrival of Pacific Mills. In 1923 Pacific Mills made the largest investment in Spartanburg County up till then. The company not only erected a mill but also built a model town: 375 houses, a community center, and a twelve-room school. Churches and a National Guard Armory came later. The town was renamed Lyman in honor of Arthur T. Lyman, president of Pacific Mills (1900-1915).

South Carolina From A to Z
SC Public Radio

"L" is for Lynch, Thomas, Sr. (ca. 1727-1776). Legislator, delegate to the Continental Congress. A prominent planter, Lynch was active in public affairs. He was a member of the Commons House of Assembly from 1752 until 1775. From an early date he opposed British encroachment on colonial autonomy. He was a delegate to the Stamp Act Congress (1765) and a member of the Non-Importation Association (1769). As one of South Carolina’s best-known and most ardent patriots, Lynch became a great favorite of the Sons of Liberty.

South Carolina From A to Z
SC Public Radio

"H" is for Horry County (1,134 square miles, 2010 population, 270, 516). Horry is the largest and easternmost of South Carolina’s forty-six counties, forming a wedge between North Carolina and the Atlantic Ocean. Its geographical isolation led in the 1840s to its being referred to as the “Independent Republic of Horry.” Unsuited for either rice or cotton production, by 1860 it was the poorest county in the state. The introduction of bright leaf tobacco in the 1890s brought prosperity and linked the county’s economy to the tobacco market.

South Carolina From A to Z
SC Public Radio

"H" is for Horry, Peter (ca. 1743-1815). Planter, soldier, legislator. In 1775 Peter Horry was commissioned a captain in the Second South Carolina Regiment. By 1780 he commanded the Fifth South Carolina, but when it was merged with another unit, he was discharged prior to the British occupation. In the summer of 1780 he returned to service—as one of Francis Marion’s most trusted and valuable officers. After the Revolution, Horry remained in the military service of the state.

South Carolina From A to Z
SC Public Radio

"G" is for Gregorie, Anne King (1887-1960). Historian, teacher, author, editor. After graduating from Winthrop in 1906, Gregorie taught for a while and then spent several years working with her father. In 1925 she embarked on the process of becoming a professional historian. Within a year she earned a master’s degree from the University of South Carolina. In 1929 Gregorie became the first woman to deceive a doctorate from USC’s Department of History. While teaching at colleges in Alabama and Arkansas, she prepared her biography of Thomas Sumter for publication.

South Carolina From A to Z
SC Public Radio

"G" is for Gregg, William (1800-1867). Manufacturer. Industrial promoter. Gregg made his fortune as an importer of fancy goods and jewelry in Charleston. In 1844, he toured the leading manufacturing centers of the Northeast. Returning to Charleston he wrote a series of articles that evolved into a pamphlet, Essays on Domestic Industry. In these widely circulated publications, Gregg called on the South to invest in manufacturing and end its reliance on staple agriculture—and made him widely known among the South’s leading industrial advocates.

South Carolina From A to Z
SC Public Radio

"C" is for Cleveland School Fire (May 17, 1923). Cleveland Public School was situated in Kershaw County, six mile south of Camden. The school was housed in a two-story frame building; an auditorium (40 feet by 20 feet) was on the second floor. On May 17, 1923 the room was packed with 300 people attending graduation ceremonies and a class play. During the performance, a large oil lamp fell to the stage and ignited an intense fire. Terrified spectators rushed toward the only exit. Some persons were trampled to death and the wooden stairway collapsed.

South Carolina From A to Z
SC Public Radio

"C" is for Cleveland, Georgia Allen (1851-1914). Writer, activist. Georgia Allen Cleveland and her husband were noted for their generosity and charity in the Spartanburg community. Both played leading roles in the founding of Converse College. She kept a diary from 1890 to 1914 in which she chronicled life as an upper class married southern white female. Because of the richness of her entries, she left a legacy of South Carolina upcountry history that documented local, state, and regional history. Her diary is a valuable record of Victorian female domesticity from the grand to the mundane.

South Carolina From A to Z
SC Public Radio

"C" is for Clemson University Extension Service. The Smith-Lever Act of 1914 created the Cooperative Extension Service. The act ended the rivalry between state agricultural commissioners and land grant colleges over the administration of extension work. In its place, Smith-Lever created a partnership of federal, state, and local governments that worked to improve the quality of rural life by disseminating the latest information to farmers, homemakers, and communities.

South Carolina From A to Z
SC Public Radio

“R” is for Russell’s Magazine (1857-1860). Russell’s Magazine was the last of the southern antebellum literary magazines and arguably the best. It was the magazine for the professional middle class—doctors, lawyers, and college faculty. Paul Hamilton Hayne was the journal’s editor. Hayne promised to publish “undiscovered genius” in the South because northern editors were reluctant to publish southern writers. The only undiscovered genius, however, out to be Henry Timrod.

South Carolina From A to Z
SC Public Radio

“P” is for Port Royal, Battle of (November 7, 1861). On November 7th a Union naval squadron including seventeen warships and thirty-five transports (with 1,300 soldiers aboard) entered Port Royal Sound. The warships bombarded Fort Walker on Hilton Head and Fort Beauregard on Bay Point. After five hours of fighting, the Confederates evacuated the forts and fled inland—abandoning Beaufort and the Sea Islands. The Union suffered eight killed and twenty-three wounded; Confederate losses were eleven killed and sixty-one wounded.

"P" is for Port Royal

Apr 4, 2018
South Carolina From A to Z
SC Public Radio

"P" is for Port Royal (Beaufort County; population 3,950). In 1869 Stephen Caldwell Miller began construction of the Port Royal Railroad between Augusta, Georgia, and Battery Point on the southern end of Port Royal Island. The town, railroad, and harbor facilities followed and Port Royal was incorporated in 1874. The town soon surpassed Beaufort in both shipping and commercial activities. Nearby phosphate deposits brought a boom and regular railroad connections with inland cities. Passenger ship service was established to New York, Liverpool, and Bremen.

South Carolina From A to Z
SC Public Radio

“M” is for Mill Schools. Textile mill executives surrounded their mills with villages and most provided schools to educate the children of mill workers. The mill school was a reflection of the individual community and run with little interference or oversight by the state. Prior to South Carolina’s compulsory attendance law, children as young as nine went top work in the mills, depending on the family’s preference or financial circumstances. One of the most audacious examples of South Carolina’s Progressive movement was the creation of a high school in Greenville.

"M" is for Militia

Apr 2, 2018
South Carolina From A to Z
SC Public Radio

“M” is for Militia. South Carolina’s early settlers brought with them the traditional English concept of a militia, the idea that every citizen had a duty to assist in the defense of the community. A 1671 ordinance required all men (sixteen to sixty) to serve in the militia and provide their own weapons. The Militia act of 1792 required all white males (eighteen to forty-five) to serve and supply their weapons and ammunition. The militia served primarily as a source of manpower for the regular patrols used to enforce the laws on slave activity.

South Carolina From A to Z
SC Public Radio

“M” is for Military Education. Since the antebellum period, southerners have regarded military education as an excellent way to instill self-discipline, integrity, patriotism, moral virtue, and a sense of civic duty in youths, particularly young men. The South Carolina Military Academy was founded in 1842 with two branches: Arsenal Academy in Columbia that evolved into a prep school and the Citadel in Charleston as a college. When Clemson Agricultural College opened in 1893, it instituted a military program.

"L" is for Lynch, Thomas, Jr. (1749-1779)

Mar 29, 2018
South Carolina From A to Z
SC Public Radio

“L” is for Lynch, Thomas, Jr. (1749-1779). Signer of the Declaration of Independence. A native of Prince George Winyah Parish, Lynch attended the Indigo Society School. He then travelled to England where he was schooled at Eton and then Caius College, Cambridge. He then read law at the Middle Temple. Lynch returned to South Carolina in 1772 and two years later was elected to the First Provincial Congress. In 1775 he was commissioned a captain in the First South Carolina Regiment. A year later he was elected to the Second Continental Congress.

South Carolina From A to Z
SC Public Radio

“L” is for Lynch, Patrick Nelson (1817-1882). Clergyman, diplomat. Lynch was born in Ireland. His family immigrated to South Carolina in 1819 and settled in Cheraw. Bishop John England educated Lynch in his boys’ academy in Charleston and then sent him to Rome to complete his studies for the priesthood. Returning home, he was rector of St. Mary’s, Charleston and editor of The United States Catholic Miscellany. In 1858, he was consecrated the third bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Charleston.

South Carolina From A to Z
SC Public Radio

"H" is for Hoppin’ John. Hoppin’ John is a pilaf made with beans and rice. The recipe came directly to America from West Africa and is typical of the one-pot cooking of the South Carolina lowcountry. As the recipe moved inland, it became the traditional dish for good luck on New Year’s Day throughout the South. The first written appearance of the recipe in English was in Sarah Rutledge’s The Carolina Housewife, or House and Home, by a Lady of Charleston.

"An accurate map of North and South Carolina with their Indian frontiers, shewing in a distinct manner all the mountains, rivers, swamps, marshes, bays, creeks, harbours, sandbanks and soundings on the coasts." Henry Mouzon, 1775
Norman B. Leventhal Map Center (NBL Map Center) at the Boston Public Library (BPL) [CC BY 2.0]

A two-decade, joint effort between South Carolina and North Carolina has sought to correct errors made surveying the boundary line between the two states. The errors began with the first survey, made in 1735, and were compounded over the years. Alan-Jon Zupan, a former project manager for the South Carolina Geological Survey, and David Ballard, currently with SCGS, join Walter Edgar to talk about the history of South Carolina’s northern line, and the modern-day efforts to get it right.

All Stations: Fri, Dec 15, 12 pm | News & Talk Stations: Sun, Dec 17, 4 pm

"G" is for the Gadsden Flag, a bright yellow banner with a gray, coiled rattlesnake at its center with the words “Don't Tread on Me” inscribed beneath. Although there had been similar flags since the French and Indian War, this particular flag can be traced to Christopher Gadsden, one of the state's delegates to the First Continental Congress. The rattlesnake in a variety of poses was used to reflect colonial anger and defiance.

"F" is for the Farmer's Alliance. Founded in the 1870s in Texas, the National Farmers' Alliance and its segregated counterpart the Colored Farmers' National Alliance addressed the issues of debt and depressed commodity prices that most rural Americans faced. The first county alliance in South Carolina was founded in Marion in 1887 and within a year there was a statewide alliance.

"J" is for Johnson, Harriet Catherine Frazier [1889-1972]. Legislator, state 4-H Club leader. After graduating from Winthrop, Johnson was hired by Spartanburg County as an extension agent. From 1922 to1944 she was the head of the state 4-H girls’ clubs headquartered at Winthrop. In February 1945 she won a special election in York County and became the first woman elected to the South Carolina House of Representatives. Her bill to provide schoolbooks for children in York County was so popular that the General Assembly amended it to apply to all high schools in the state.

"I" is for Izard, Ralph [1742-1804]. Diplomat, congressman, legislator, U.S. Senator. After attending Christ College, Cambridge, Izard married Alice DeLancey and the couple decided to live in England. With the coming of the Revolution, they moved to France and the Continental Congress appointed him as its representative to Tuscany. He remained in Paris until 1780 when he returned to South Carolina and was elected to the Continental Congress. After the war he and his sons-in-law-- William Loughton Smith and Gabriel Manigault—formed a powerful political faction.

  "H" is for Harby, Isaac [1788-1828]. Journalist, playwright, educator, religious reformer. After attending the College of Charleston and studying for the law, Harby opened a private school. Harby’s Academy provided him with an income while he attempted various literary pursuits. For several years he owned and edited a Charleston newspaper, the Southern Patriot and Commercial Advertiser. He later edited the Charleston City Gazette and was a frequent contributor to the Charleston Mercury. Harby wrote at least three plays and was a respected drama critic.

"Y" is for Young, Anne Austin [1892-1989]. Physician. Born in Laurens County, at the age of fourteen Young enrolled at Presbyterian College where she graduated with honors. She taught school briefly then in 1911 went to Philadelphia to study at the Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania, specializing in gynecology and obstetrics. After graduating in 1915, she declined a fellowship at the University of Edinburgh and returned home. In 1918 she wed Charles Henry Young and together they practiced in Anderson County. They devoted their careers to Anderson Memorial hospital.

"W" is for Walter, Thomas [ca. 1740-1789]. Botanist, planter, patriot, politician. Born in England, Walter was in South Carolina by 1769 and remained in the lowcountry for the next twenty years. During this period he collected plants in the coastal plain of South Carolina and cultivated others in his garden. The culmination of his botanical efforts was Flora Caroliniana, the first flora document of a region of North America to utilize the Linnǽan system of classification. Published in 1788, it contained more than one thousand species—including many new to science.

"U" is for United Church of Christ. In 1957 the United Church of Christ was established through the merger of the Congregational Church with the German Reformed Church. Congregational churches traced their American roots to the 1648 union of the Pilgrims of Plymouth and the Puritans of Massachusetts Bay into a single denomination. Congregationalists were among the earliest settlers of South Carolina and established churches throughout the lowcountry. The Circular Congregational Meeting House in colonial Charleston included some of the city's most influential citizens.

"T" is for Taylor, Susie King [born circa 1848]. Born into slavery as Susan Baker near Savannah, Taylor became free at fourteen when her uncle led her and others to freedom. As one of thousands of black refugees on the Sea Islands, she attached herself to the First South Carolina Volunteers. Originally, she was the regimental laundress, but her other talents—especially her ability to read and write and her knowledge of folk remedies—soon gave her a wider scope of responsibility. She nursed the regiment's sick and wounded and served as its reading instructor.

"S" is for St. Helena’s Parish. On June 7th, 1712, the Commons House of Assembly passed an act designating all of the land between the Combahee and Savannah rivers [most of modern Beaufort and Jasper counties] as the parish of St. Helena. British settlers Anglicized the name given to the area by early Spanish settlers, Santa Elena. The area, however, did not grow substantially until after the Yamassee War. In 1724, the beautiful parish church was built in Beaufort. By 1767, three other parishes were carved out of St. Helena’s—so that the parish consisted of only Port Royal, Lady’s, and St.

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