It took a long time for Andrea Valobra to realize something basic about her culture. She grew up knowing that women were expected to do certain duties that men didn’t have to do, like cleaning and cooking. But she didn’t understand the full extent of the machismo culture until she was in her teens.
Her first boyfriend raped her. Another hit and choked her.
She says her family explained it away.
"'He likes you, so he will rape you,'" she says. "'He loves you too much and that is why he has to control your phone.'"